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Please see my other message - this also appears to be third-party material and should not be simply copied into your blog. I'll give you a chance to explain your goal, but it will have to go if you cannot do so....

The IUPAC compendium of technology states: "previously, descriptions such as graphite layers, carbon layers, or carbon sheets have been used for the term graphene... it is incorrect to use for a single layer a term which includes the term graphite, which would imply a three-dimensional structure. The term graphene should be used only when the reactions, structural relations or other properties of individual layers are discussed."[citation needed] In this regard, graphene has been referred to as an infinite alternant (only six-member carbon ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The largest known isolated molecule of this type consists of 222 atoms and is 10 benzene rings across.[6] It has proven difficult to synthesize even slightly bigger molecules, and they still remain "a dream of many organic and polymer chemists".[7]
Furthermore, ab initio calculations show that a graphene sheet is thermodynamically unstable with respect to other fullerene structures if its size is less than about 20 nm (“graphene is the least stable structure until about 6000 atoms”) and becomes the most stable one (as within graphite) only for sizes larger than 24,000 carbon atoms.[8] The flat graphene sheet is also known to be unstable with respect to scrolling i.e. curling up, which is its lower-energy state.[9]
A definition of "isolated or free-standing graphene" has also recently been proposed: "graphene is a single atomic plane of graphite, which—and this is essential—is sufficiently isolated from its environment to be considered free-standing."[10] This definition is narrower than the definitions given above and refers to cleaved, transferred and suspended graphene monolayers.[citation needed]
Other forms of graphene, such as graphene grown on various metals, can also become free-standing if, for example, suspended or transferred to silicon dioxide (SiO2). A new example of isolated graphene is graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) after its passivation with hydrogen.[11]
[edit]Occurrence and production

In essence, graphene is an isolated atomic plane of graphite. From this perspective, graphene has been known since the invention of X-ray crystallography. Graphene planes become even better separated in intercalated graphite compounds. In 2004 physicists at the University of Manchester and the Institute for Microelectronics Technology, Chernogolovka, Russia, first isolated individual graphene planes by using adhesive tape.[12] They also measured electronic properties of the obtained flakes and showed their unique properties.[13] In 2005 the same Manchester Geim group together with the Philip Kim group from Columbia University (see the History section) demonstrated that quasiparticles in graphene were massless Dirac fermions. These discoveries led to an explosion of interest in graphene.
Since then, hundreds of researchers have entered the area, resulting in an extensive search for relevant earlier papers. The Manchester researchers themselves published the first literature review.[1] They cite several papers in which graphene or ultra-thin graphitic layers were epitaxially grown on various substrates. Also, they note a number of pre-2004 reports in which intercalated graphite compounds were studied in a transmission electron microscope. In the latter case, researchers occasionally observed extremely thin graphitic flakes ("few-layer graphene" and possibly even individual layers). An early detailed study on few-layer graphene dates back to 1962.[14] The earliest TEM images of few-layer graphene were published by G. Ruess and F. Vogt in 1948.[15] However, already D.C. Brodie was aware of the highly lamellar structure of thermally reduced graphite oxide in 1859[citation needed]. It was studied in detail by V. Kohlschütter and P. Haenni in 1918, who also described the properties of graphite oxide paper.[16]
It is now well known that tiny fragments of graphene sheets are produced (along with quantities of other debris) whenever graphite is abraded, such as when drawing a line with a pencil.[12] There was little interest in this graphitic residue before 2004/05 and, therefore, the discovery of graphene is often attributed to Andre Geim and colleagues [17] who introduced graphene in its modern incarnation.
In 2008, graphene produced by exfoliation was one of the most expensive materials on Earth, with a sample that can be placed at the cross section of a human hair costing more than $1,000 as of April 2008 (about $100,000,000/cm2).[12] Since then, exfoliation procedures have been scaled up, and now companies sell graphene in large quantities.[18] On the other hand, the price of epitaxial graphene on SiC is dominated by the substrate price, which is approximately $100/cm2 as of 2009. Even cheaper graphene has been produced by transfer from nickel by Korean researchers,[19] with wafer sizes up to 30 inches (760 mm) reported.[20]
In 2011 the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology and Department of Physics, Warsaw University announced a joint development of acquisition technology of large pieces of graphene with the best quality so far.[21][22][23] In April the same year, Polish scientists with support from the Polish Ministry of Economy began the procedure for granting a patent to their discovery around the world.[24][25][26][27]
In the literature, specifically that of the surface science community, graphene has also been commonly referred to as monolayer graphite. This community has intensely studied epitaxial graphene on various surfaces (over 300 articles prior to 2004). In some cases, these graphene layers are coupled to the surfaces weakly enough (by Van der Waals forces) to retain the two dimensional electronic band structure of isolated graphene,[28][29] as also happens[13] with exfoliated graphene flakes with regard to SiO2. An example of weakly coupled epitaxial graphene is the one grown on SiC (see below).

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