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INTERNET BASICS [(HTML)]




Introduction
The language used to develop web pages is called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML is the language interpreted by a Browser. Web Pages are also called HTML documents. HTML is a set of special codes that can be embedded in text to add formatting and linking information. HTML is specified as TAGS in an HTML document (i.e. the Web page).

HTML Tags
Tags are instructions that are embedded directly into the text of the document. An HTML tag is a signal to a browser that is should do something other than just throw text up on the screen. By convention all HTML tags begin with an open angel bracket (<) and end with a close angle bracket (>).

HTML tags can be of two types:

Paired Tags:-

A tag is said to be a paired tag if it comes with its closing tag. For example, the <B> tag with its companion tag </B> causes the text contained between them to be rendered in bold. The effect of other paired tags is applied only to the text they contain.

The opening tag activates the effect and the closing tag turns the effect off.

Singular Tags

The second type of tag is the singular or stand-alone tag. A stand-alone tag does not have a companion tag. For example <BR /> tag will insert a line break. This tag does not require any companion tag.

COMMONLY USED HTML COMMANDS

The Structure of an HTML program

Every HTML program has a rigid structure. The entire web page is enclosed within <HTML> </HTML> tags. Within these tags two distinct sections are created using the <HEAD> </HEAD> tags and the <BODY> </BODY> tags. The <HEAD> section includes the <TITLE> </TITLE> tag which displays the title of the document on the title bar of browser. The <BODY> section includes the main designing of the web document. The <BODY> tag also contains the attributes such as background color, text color, font size, font weight etc.



The structure of the HTML document: -

<html>
<head>
<title>Untitled</title>
</head>
<body>
.
.
.
.
.
</body>
</html>

TEXT FORMATTING

Paragraph breaks

A blank line always separates paragraphs in textual material. The tag that provides this functionality is <P>.

Line Breaks

When text needs to start from a new line and not continue on the same line the <BR/> tag should be used.

HTML provides certain HEADING STYLES and HORIZONTAL RULES, which helps break text into logical sections with visual appeal.

Heading Styles

HTML supports six different levels of headings. The highest-level header format is <H1> and the lowest level is <H6>. All the styles appear in BOLDFACE and the size of the heading depends on the level chosen, i.e. <H1> to <H6>

Drawing Lines

The tag <HR> draws lines and horizontal rules. This tag draws a horizontal line across the whole page, wherever specified. The attributes to the <HR> tag are ALIGN SIZE and WIDTH.



Bold

Displays text in BOLDFACE style. The tags used are <B>…. </B>

Italics

Displays text in ITALICS. The tags used are between <I>…. </I>

Underline

Displays text as UNDERLINED, The tags used are <U>…. </U>

Centering (Text, Images etc.)

<CENTER>……… </CENTER> tags are used to center everything found between them – text, lists, images, rules, tables or any other page element.

MARQUEE

Marquee can be defined with the help of following definitions:-
• A piece of text across a browser document window that scrolls.
• A region on a page that displays a horizontally scrolling message.
• A line of text that scrolls across the bottom or top of a web page.

The <MARQUEE>………. </MARQUEE> tags scroll our defined piece of text or image across the screen.

Attributes:-

Width Sets or retrieves the width of the object.
Height Sets or retrieves the height of the object.
Bgcolor Sets the background color behind the object
Direction Sets the direction in which the text should scroll.
Scrollamount Sets the number of pixels the text scrolls between each subsequent drawing of the Marquee.
Scrolldelay Sets or retrieves the speed of the Marquee scroll

Example:-

<Marquee width = “100%” height = “20” Bgcolor = “Yellow” Direction = “Left” Scrollamount = “10” Scrolldelay = “200”> Scrolling Text </Marquee>



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