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history of my state

Jos North Local Government “the heart beat of Jos”, seat of the state government is bounded on the south by its sister LGA, Jos South which used to be part of the local government area until it was split in 1991, Bassa Local Government area on its west, while on its North –East is Jos – East Local Government Council.
Jos North Local Government area, in spite of the small land mass covering 285 squre kilometers is the most densely populated local government in the state of approximately 5,333,544 people. The main ethnic group are the Anare, the Beroms, Anaguta and Afizere. However, they co-exist with settlers such as the Igbo, Hausa, Yorubas and a few others.
The main town s in the local government areas are, Jos Naraguta, Gwomg, Tundunwada, Kabong and Larato.
The local government area enjoys a temperete climate nearly the same that obtained in some part of Europe and United State of America. It is often very cold between 81.7 degree F maximum and 51.7 degree F as minimum. It records an annual rainfall of between 131.75cm and 146.00cm.
The economy here is basically commercial because the metropolitan nature of the local government. There are many large and small scales, private and public industrial concerns and various State and Federal Government Establishements which offer white-collar jobs to the urban population. These include the Jos International Breweries, Nasco Group of Companies, Jos Steel Rolling Mill, market Smelting Company, UTC and Leventis motors, among others.
The Local Government is strategically located by nature on the high altitude of the Plateau which has a favourable weather and tourist resort such as the 200/museum, Jos Ultra-modern market, amongst others.
To transform Jos-North local government to a model in accordance with the 10 point agenda of the dynamic and well focused governor, DA Johnan David Jang of Plateau State.
Investigation by the National Outlok revealed that on assumption of office as chairman, Ngo Lydia swung into action by completing all uncompleted projects started her predecessors with a view to transforming the local government into a model.
She said the 10 point of governor Jonah Jang must be vigorously pursued. Ngo Lydia who disclosed to National Outlook that there is now peace in Jos – North Local Government seat of the state government, also said she was able to achieve this by playing her motherly role by taking every body along, irrespective or religion, tribe and class.
On the completion of projects, Nog Lydia disclosed that she has completed many projects, which include the Council guest house at Naraguta, Fencing of the present local government premises, renovation of Anaguta Chief palace; motorized borehole speed across the various wards within Jos-North local government.
She has also ensured that salaries are paid promptly, it is therefore little wonder that the secretary of the Federal Government (SFG) deemed it fit and bestowed the council with an award of “The best Performing Local Government in the Northern-Nigeria”. Ngo Lydia Lodam remains a pace setter anytime, any day

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friends i am from kuwait and here i am presenting our history for all you people there

Kuwait's emergence as an independent political entity dates back more than 380 years ago, to 1613. This has been established by new research initiated by the Kuwaiti government after the liberation of the country from the Iraqi invasion. According to Dr Abdallah Al-Ghoneim, the President of the Centre for Kuwaiti Research and Studies the new research proves that Kuwait existed as early as 1613 and not 1752 as formerly believed.

This was substantiated by other evidence also. In a letter found in the British archives, addressed by Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah in 1913 to the British Political Resident, the former says "Kuwait is a land of the poor in which our grandfather Al-Sabah dwelled in 1613." Evidence also includes a letter sent by Oman's Imam Naser Bin Murshed in the 1730s to the Kuwaiti government, appealing for help against the Portuguese. Kuwait had then sent two ships loaded with weapons and ammunition.

In the 17th century, the Bani Khalid were the overlords of eastern Arabia and their domain stretched from Kuwait to Qatar. In about 1672 Barrak Bin Ghuraif, the Amir of the Bani Khalid, built his kout (a small house in the shape of a fortress situated near water) in Qurain, a small fishing community. This may have been in the area in Kuwait City known today as Wattiya.

The Utub, a federation of Arab families, were driven out of Al-Aflaj in central Arabia by the drought in the 17th century. They learned sea-faring and then scattered into various Arabian Gulf ports before coming to Kuwait in the early 18th century. They settled here under the suzerainty of the Bani Khalid.

Family disputes within the ruling Bani Khalid in 1722 gave the Utub in Kuwait a chance to practice some independence. After 1752 further internal disputes among the Bani Khalid and the rise of the Wahhabis, their bitter enemies in central Arabia, gave the Utub of Kuwait de facto independence. In about 1756 they elected Sabah Bin Jaber as the Amir of Kuwait to administer justice and the affairs of the town.

As the regional influence of the Bani Khalid waned, Kuwait’s lack of protection made the rise of a strong local power necessary. The Utub had changed from nomads to settlers since their move from Al-Aflaj and the first Al-Sabah was chosen by the other families as their leader.

HH the Amir’s fifth son, HH Sheikh Abdullah-Al-Sabah was selected to succeed his father. Under his stable rule, Kuwait transformed into a prosperous and influential independency. In the latter part of the 18th and early 19th centuries Kuwait became a major port of call on several international trading routes.

Pearls were Kuwait’s only natural resource and each year hundreds of pearling ships such as sambuks made for the lucrative pearl banks to return at the end of summer. Shipbuilding and using imported materials, became an important industry. In winter, large trading dhows set out for India to return with merchandise (and mail) which was loaded onto desert caravans bound for the Mediterranean. Caravans from southern and eastern Arabia also passed through Kuwait on their way to Syria. Kuwait’s markets were crowded with Bedouins selling their products and services or buying imports for resale in the interior.

HH the Amir, Sheikh Jaber I Al-Sabah (1812-1859) ruled in consultation with the merchants of Kuwait, and managed to maintain good relations with all the major powers of the day. However, as Kuwait prospered throughout the 19th century its independence came under threat from regional and European powers.

To counter growing Turkish ambitions, HH the Amir, Sheikh Mubarak (1896-1915) signed treaties with the global powers of that time. The country prospered greatly under HH Sheikh Mubarak’s rule. Hundreds arrived to settle in Kuwait, attracted by its orderly administration and increasing commercial activity.

But trade declined sharply in Kuwait from the 1920s onwards due to the worldwide recession, Kuwait’s reduced importance as a major link in 20th century international trade routes, and because of hostilities from the Ikhwan, tribesmen from the interior of Arabia, who were only finally defeated in 1930. Kuwait’s pearling industry, which once boasted 800 pearling ships, almost disappeared with the introduction of Japanese cultured pearls and the worldwide fall in demand for luxury goods following the Wall Street Crash of 1929. However, in the 1950s and 1960s, Kuwait underwent a transition from a small Amirate to an internationally influential modern state because of the oil boom.

The Rulers of the Al-Sabah Dynasty
1. Sheikh Sabah I Bin Jaber: 1756-1762
2. Sheikh Abdullah I: 1762-1812
3. Sheikh Jaber I: 1812-1859
4. Sheikh Sabah II: 1859-1866
5. Sheikh Abdullah II: 1866-1892
6. Sheikh Mohammad I: 1892-1896
7. Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah: 1896-1915
8. Sheikh Jaber II: 1915-1917 Click to enlarge.
9. Sheikh Salem Al-Mubarak: 1917-1921
10. Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah: 1921-1950
11. Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah: 1950-1965
12. Sheikh Sabah Al-Salem Al-Sabah: 1965-1977
13. Sheikh Jaber Al-AhmadAl-Jaber Al-Sabah: The present ruler, who ascended the throne in January 1978.

The Discovery Of Oil
Click to enlarge The first exploration well was drilled in Bahrah when a geophysical exploration was carried out. Oil was first discovered in Burgan in 1938. Because of the Second World War exports did not start until 1946. As oil exports increased, Ahmadi -- named after HH the Amir Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah -- was created near the oil fields as a township for oil company personnel.
The oil embargo in 1973 resulted in substantially improved oil prices. In 1975 the government took 100 per cent control of the State’s oil resources. The resulting massive inflows of funds were spent on developing the country’s infrastructure and in improving living standards.
Modern infrastructure rose from the arid desert as roads, ports, factories, power generating stations, and desalination plants came into being. The population increased as thousands of foreign technical advisors and workers arrived to service the huge development schemes. Many Kuwaitis, members of a privileged minority, found themselves in new roles as importers, contractors, landlords and government officials.

The government’s role in the economy and administration naturally increased under the impact of the new wealth and development. Modern business laws were promulgated. A new administrative order was devised as the government expanded. Though Shura (consultation) had always been a part of political life in Kuwait since the reign of the first Al-Sabah ruler, the government began developing a new style of constitutional rule.

Though Kuwait had been an independent political entity for more than two centuries, it gained international recognition as a sovereign state in June 1961. A few weeks later Kuwait joined the Arab League. In 1963 the country became a member of the United Nations.

The State of Kuwait’s Constitution was ratified on November 11, 1962. Its National Assembly was convened under the Constitution on January 29, 1963.
cool? Cool
Guys,please posts stuffs aboujt either your country,state or local would help people get info about you rlocal goverment when it is being searched and help improve frihost page rank.thanks
Here are some paragraphs about the Romanian Communism. It's interesting. If you have time, please read. Wink




In 1947, King Michael I was forced by the Communists to abdicate and leave the country, Romania was proclaimed a republic, and remained under direct military and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's resources were drained by the "SovRom" agreements: mixed Soviet-Romanian companies established to mask the looting of Romania by the Soviet Union.

After the negotiated retreat of Soviet troops in 1958, Romania, under the new leadership of Nicolae Ceauºescu, started to pursue independent policies. Such examples are the condemnation of the Soviet-led 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia (being the only Warsaw Pact country not to take part in the invasion), the continuation of diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967 (again, the only Warsaw Pact country to do so), the establishment of economic (1963) and diplomatic (1967) relations with the Federal Republic of Germany, and so forth. Also, close ties with the Arab countries (and the PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel-Egypt and Israel-PLO peace processes by intermediating the visit of Sadat in Israel. A short-lived period of relative economic well-being and openness followed in the late 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. As Romania's foreign debt sharply increased between 1977 and 1981 (from 3 to 10 billion US dollars), the influence of international financial organisations such as the IMF or the World Bank grew, conflicting with Nicolae Ceauºescu's autarchic policies. Ceauºescu eventually initiated a project of total reimbursement of the foreign debt (completed in 1989, shortly before his overthrow). To achieve this goal, he imposed policies that impoverished Romanians and exhausted the Romanian economy. He greatly extended the authority police state and imposed a cult of personality. These led to a dramatic decrease in Ceauºescu-popularity and culminated in his overthrow and execution in the bloody Romanian Revolution of 1989.

During the 1947–1962 period, many people were arbitrarily killed or imprisoned for political, economic or unknown reasons: detainees in prisons or camps, deported, persons under house arrest, and administrative detainees. There were hundreds of thousands of abuses, deaths and incidents of torture against a large range of people, from political opponents to ordinary citizens. Between 60,000 and 80,000 political prisoners were detained as psychiatric patients and treated in some of the most sadistic ways by doctors. Even though between 1962 and 1964 some political prisoners were freed in a series of amnesties it is estimated that, it total, two million people were direct victims of the communism repression.


And here are some paragraphs about the geography of Romania: mountains, the Danube Delta, landscapes, etc. Arrow


With a surface area of 238,391 square kilometres (92,043 sq mi), Romania is the largest country in southeastern Europe and the twelfth-largest in Europe. A large part of Romania's border with Serbia and Bulgaria is formed by the Danube. The Danube is joined by the Prut River, which forms the border with the Republic of Moldova. The Danube flows into the Black Sea within Romania's territory forming the Danube Delta, the second largest and the best preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site. Other important rivers are the Siret, running north-south through Moldavia, the Olt, running from the oriental Carpathian Mountains to Oltenia, and the Mureº, running through Transylvania from East to West.

Romania's terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountainous, hilly and lowland territories. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of Romania, with fourteen of its mountain ranges reaching above the altitude of 2,000 meters. The highest mountain in Romania is Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m/8,350 ft). In south-central Romania, the Carpathians sweeten into hills, towards the Bãrãgan Plains. Romania's geographical diversity has led to an accompanying diversity of flora and fauna.


A high percentage of natural ecosystems (47% of the land area of the country) is covered with natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Since almost half of all forests in Romania (13% of the country) have been managed for watershed conservation rather than production, Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe. The integrity of Romanian forest ecosystems is indicated by the presence of the full range of European forest fauna, including 60% and 40% of all European brown bears and wolves, respectively. There are also almost 400 unique species of mammals (of which Carpathian chamois are best known), birds, reptiles and amphibians in Romania.

There are almost 10,000 km² (3,900 sq mi) (almost 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania. Of these, Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere is the largest and least damaged wetland complex in Europe, covering a total area of 5,800 km² (2,200 sq mi). The significance of the biodiversity of the Danube Delta has been internationally recognised. It was declared a Biosphere Reserve in September 1990, a Ramsar site in May 1991, and over 50% of its area was placed on the World Heritage List in December 1991. Within its boundaries is one of the most extensive reed bed systems in the world. There are two other biosphera reserves: Retezat National Park and Rodna National Park.


Owing to its distance from the open sea and position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is transitional between temperate and continental with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11°C in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.[102] The extreme recorded temperatures are 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) in Ion Sion 1951 and −38.5 °C (−37 °F) in Bod 1942.

Spring is pleasant with cool mornings and nights and warm days. Summers are generally very warm to hot, with summer (June to August) average maximum temperatures in Bucharest being around 28 °C (82 °F), with temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. Minima in Bucharest and other lower-lying areas are around 16 °C (61 °F), but at higher altitudes both maxima and minima decline considerably. Autumn is dry and cool, with fields and trees producing colorful foliage. Winters can be cold, with average maxima even in lower-lying areas being no more than 2 °C (36 °F) and below −15 °C (5.0 °F) in the highest mountains, where some areas of permafrost occur on the highest peaks.

Precipitation is average with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains — much of it falling as snow which allows for an extensive skiing industry. In the south-centern parts of the country (around Bucharest) the level of precipitation drops to around 600 mm (24 in), while in the Danube Delta, rainfall levels are very low, and average only around 370 mm.
guys,dont you have any history?If you do,please do post it here.
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