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Why did the great ALEXANDER could not enter India?





justinrocks
Recently I got an assignment to make a motivational video presentation on Alexander and his progress. To do this I read few books on Alexander and watched movie 'Alexander' as well but everywhere its mentioned that finally Alexander was defeated in India and he decided to return home and putting and end to his ambition of capturing the world.

But nowhere its explained why such a strong Alexander couldn't enter India? is it because he and his army got traped in Himalayan Chillness, they couldn't manage with the cold air?

In those few books I read its written like he was tired and his army too so they decided to return home but Why only after a defeat? Why Alexander did not decide before the war with an not so strong Indian king.

Is this was a reason? simply Alexander did not know anything about Indian style of attacking. They have picturized well in the movie how Alexander meets the defeat.

But such an inspiring Alexander and a simple defeat in the end.. I am not clear about this part.

Can anyone explain this?

P.S: My presentation on Alexander was a success. People acknowledged me .. thanks to the great Alexander.
MaxStirner
I was not aware of any catastrophic defeat that forced Alexander to turn back. Rather, it seems most historians agree that discontent troops on the verge of mutiny over a very long and bloody campaign, forced Alexander to turn back at the Indus instead of the Ganges River, his original plan. The Himalayas hardly played a role, monsoon rains and difficult to breach swamps and rivers were much more of an obstacle. In any case, Alexander spent most of his time in the Hindu-Kush and not in the Himalayas proper. The only defeats I recall offhand are the losses of some of the cities founded by Alexander which were razed after his army/navy exited the theatre via the Indus River and Persian Gulf.

By the way, India in those times was any region to the east of Persia, including todays eastern Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Alexander not entering India is only a true statement if measured by todays Indian borders. To be exact, there was no India anyway but rather a large number of kingdoms and states of all sizes.
deanhills
Alexander did enter India. Before he did he got rid of most of his Persian booty as it slowed down his progress. He also got rid of some of his army. Completely reshaped it. Then followed one of his greatest battles on his travels with a powerful Indian leader called Porus. This was at the Jhelum River in what is now Pakistan. Alexander captured Porus, however like all the other rulers allowed Porus to carry on as chief. Sad part during the battle was that Alexander's horse Bucephalus was wounded and died. He had ridden the horse into all of his battles and was quite grief-stricken about it.

Alexander then wanted to continue to the Ganges River, which at the time he had thought had been an outer Ocean. At this point his troops, after the big battle with Porus, refused to go further East. They had been away friom Macedonia for too long and Alexander had promised them repeatedly that they would return, and at this point they refused to go further. It is said that he and his army had reached the mouth of the Indus (near what is now Hyderabad in Pakistan) and then returned westward for home.

Think all of that was in the movie as well.
satksri
I read somewhere that Alexander contracted Malaria.. Not sure if it happened while returning or if it was the reason for turning back?
Spartan
satksri wrote:
I read somewhere that Alexander contracted Malaria.. Not sure if it happened while returning or if it was the reason for turning back?

That did happen, yes. I don't believe it was the reason he turned back though. I just learned about Alexander the Great in school. Apparently, after barely winning, his army urged him to turn back to home, since they've been marching for 11 years. According to my history book, that is.
deanhills
satksri wrote:
I read somewhere that Alexander contracted Malaria.. Not sure if it happened while returning or if it was the reason for turning back?
Alexander's men in his army wanted to return and he had been promising them to do that for quite a while. So they forced his arm in this. I don't think he died of malaria. The version that I heard says it was of poison. Probably needs to be verified.
Klaw 2
I remember that he had a chest woound wich left his lungs in poor health later he died of some kind of fever. I could be wrong..
deanhills
Klaw 2 wrote:
I remember that he had a chest woound wich left his lungs in poor health later he died of some kind of fever. I could be wrong..
I checked up and found that his death was not conclusive, i.e. they don't know whether it was a virus or poisoning.
peaceupnorth
The Death of Alexander the Great

This is a tale about the life and death of Alexander the Great, the warlord and conqueror.

Not content with his own small kingdom, Alexander conquered and pillaged for most of his life. His empire was unprecedented in size.

King Alexander had been told by a renowned sage that he would not die until "the earth was made of steel and the sky of gold." Since neither of these things were thought possible, Alexander believed himself immortal, like the Olympian gods, and for a long time his adventures seemed to prove it. This lulled him into a false sense of security.

He was unable to conquer the whole of India, however, and on his return journey from that failed expedition he suddenly fell sick from a severe fever, in the deserts of Babylon.

His illness was so severe and swift that his men had to build a make-shift shelter for him. One of his generals spread his steel coat, lined with velvet, on the ground and helped him lie down. He offered a gold umbrella over the king's head to protect him from the scorching sun.

It was then that Alexander, the invincible conqueror, realized that his end was near, for he was lying on a ground of steel with a golden awning over him. Addressing the best of the physicians who were attending him, he begged them to do something, offering them half his kingdom.

He then felt great remorse, that all his life he had spent waging war, causing pain and suffering, and he had not even the time to enjoy it.

On the tenth day of his sickness, his generals one by one passed through his tent to give him their final respect. Alexander bade them goodbye and directed that, at the funeral, his hands should be kept outside of the shroud so that all could see that the great emperor was leaving the world empty-handed, the same way he had come into it.
neobuxturkey
best strong is ottoman empire
airh3ad
Well i'm not sure how detailed his research was, but Mr Muhamedi will be well aware that he is wading into a debate that is already highly emotive. We do know that Alexander the Great was a brilliant general and King of ancient Macedon, whose army swept across Asia Minor, Persia, and all the way to India, around 300 BC.
How closely Alexander would associate himself with any modern nation-state is a moot point, but he is now at the centre of a very contemporary dispute about identity.Greece has long claimed Alexander the Great as its own, stressing the cultural continuity between ancient Macedon and modern-day Greece.Maybe it would good to mention what the elit and real historians in the world thinks if the issue. Seems their is no doubt at all who Alexander was.
gandalfthegrey
I've heard different arguments, most notably that his military was overstretched. I think the most plausible explanation though is that his troops were homesick for Macedonia and wished to return to their families.
RS456
Historians do not like to admit the fact the Indian Empire was one of the stongest empires. To cover up their defeats they have eliminated and distorted certain facts from their historical records. Truth about Alexander the Great is he did enter India but barely survived Porus's wrath which led to low morale among his troops. Indian history books say he was defeated by Porus and retreated but European history books distorted that fact and said that he won and still went on a little further then his troops refused to proceed further. Another states that after Porus, out of fear of facing stronger kingdoms in the east he proceeded south and he attacked a village they stopped at. In the attack he was severely wounded which led to their final retreat to Macedonia where he died along the way. Alexander the Great story is another distorted historical theory like the Aryan invasion of India. There is no archeological evidence of an Aryan invasion of India and there is no mention or evidence of Aryans anywhere else but India. They have also distorted the facts of Indo Aryan languages. They have found a few words similar to European words which was mostly likely passed to Europe through trade but they immediately deduced that that the Indo Aryan languages are Indo European Languages to create a seperation among India. But in truth the Indo-Aryan languages have alot more similarities with the Indo-Dravidian languages. Facts don't add up as some of the Dravidian laguages were derived from the Ancient Indian languages Sanskrit and Prakrit which according to Europeans are Indo-European languages but Indo-Dravidain languages have nothing in common with the European languages.
storyteller
justinrocks wrote:
Recently I got an assignment to make a motivational video presentation on Alexander and his progress. To do this I read few books on Alexander and watched movie 'Alexander' as well but everywhere its mentioned that finally Alexander was defeated in India and he decided to return home and putting and end to his ambition of capturing the world.


Actually, Alexander won the battle in India. He was never defeated.

What made him turn back, was his troops. They traveled thousands of miles, and was tired of the campaign. The threat of mutiny is what made Alexander turn back.

That, and his health wasn't that good, after he was wounded capturing a fortified town (I don't remember what this town was called).
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