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Indian History





voila
India's history and culture is ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. Beginning with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of india is one puncuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and with the diverse cultures that surround India. Placed in the center of Asia, history in india is a crossroads of cultures from China to Europe, and the most significant Asian connection with the cultures of Africa.

India's history is more than just a set of unique developments in a definable process; it is, in many ways, a microcosm of human history itself, a diversity of cultures all impinging on a great people and being reforged into new, syncretic forms. IndHistory.com brings you the india's history starting from ancient history of india to modern indian history. Shown below is the india timeline starting from 3000 BC of ancient indus valley civilization and harappa civilization to 1000 AD of Chola Dynasty of ancient history of india.

Indian History in Short :

The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic perio ds. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose: this is the time to which the Vedas are dated.

In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. He also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to o ther parts of Asia. It is in the reign of the Mauryas that Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally informs the religion down to the present day. Successor states were more fragmented.

Islam first came to India in the eighth century, and by the 11th century had firmly established itself in India as a political force; the North Indian dynasties of the Lodhis, Tughlaqs, and numerous others, whose remains are visible in Delhi and scattered elsewhere around North India, were finally succeeded by the Mughal empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity.

The European presence in India dates to the seventeenth century, and it is in the latter part of this century that the Mughal empire began to disintegrate, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged 'victors', their rule marked by the conquests at the battlefields of Plassey and Buxar.

The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947.
Shin
Great post! It tells you the history in brief. Although I have a lot of questions but I understand that it is never easy to summarise a history of an entire country.

I watched a BBC programme the other day I think it's called The end of Raj. It is very interesting. It tells the story of how India got independent from the British, and how Pakistan and Bangladesh is formed.
roshanjk
I've been reading this book titled "Freedom at Midnight" by Lapierre and Collins. It is a chronological account of the events which led to the independence and inevitable partition of India. I would certainly recommend this book to anyone interested to know more about the modern history of India.

Freedom at Midnight does a brilliant job of not only portraying the historical events but also giving you interesting insights into the people - their personalities, aspirations, frustrations - who were involved in making that history.

Its one of the few books which, at several occassions, pushed me to the brink of crying.
corridor_writers
Truly fascinating information. I have also put the book recommended above on my “must read” list, after I finish the two books I am reading now (The gates of Fire, a book about the battle of Thermopylae, and Genghis, book about the history of the Hun empire.)
rshanthakumar
Many times, a civilisation is measured by the money it made and the wealth it created. More wealthy a civilisation was, then we consider that to be a successful civilisation. And a corollary of this is, more wealthy a civilisation is more powerful it will be!

Where was India in this map across the centuries? That would speak volumes of the Indian civilisation. India was one of the richest countries in the world cornering 40% of the global GDP for over 1400 years. The percentage GDP went down from 1400 to 1700 AD but India was still the richest nation in the world till about 1700. After this the English and the Europeans took over. 1914 you find the US becoming the richest beating the English and they continue to be.

Will India strike back is the question?
poly
I really don t know much about the ancient indian history
romaop
I read your post and found it interesting.
About the european presence: you mentioned the european presence since the seventeenth century. That's not true. Vasco da Gama in 1498 was there. In subsequent years, portuguese were there and conquered several ports (Goa, Diu, Damão, Bombay, Calecut,...).
The portuguese didn't occupy India (just some ports). They just controlled key ports to start a profitable commercial business.
corridor_writers
rshanthakumar wrote:
Many times, a civilisation is measured by the money it made and the wealth it created. More wealthy a civilisation was, then we consider that to be a successful civilisation. And a corollary of this is, more wealthy a civilisation is more powerful it will be!

Where was India in this map across the centuries? That would speak volumes of the Indian civilisation. India was one of the richest countries in the world cornering 40% of the global GDP for over 1400 years. The percentage GDP went down from 1400 to 1700 AD but India was still the richest nation in the world till about 1700. After this the English and the Europeans took over. 1914 you find the US becoming the richest beating the English and they continue to be.

Will India strike back is the question?


While “strike back” may not be the best choice of words, but it is very well known that the new world “powers” in economics are China and India. Both our now out-producing most other countries in almost every aspect. The fact that India has socialized education is also making a lot of the high-paying jobs (that require higher education) move or be run off-shore in India.
takashiro
I didn't know Indian history very much.
corridor_writers
takashiro wrote:
I didn't know Indian history very much.


It is a facinating, and very diverse history. While I myself do not know that much, what I do know is facinating. Everything from their religion(s), thier architechture, and thier way of life is different from the western culture.

One thing they definately have right is thier socialized education. Everyone there gets as much edication as they want, free (at least that is my understanding). It's why the western nations are loosing so many jobs to India. It's the only place in the world that I know of where you can call up a support desk (typically a low or entry-level IT position) and talk to somebody with a PHD.
Aless
Indian history is a fascinating subject, not only in more ancient times, but also in the modern day. The area that was once the cradle of civilisation grew to be the most important colony in a massive empire, eventually fighting against all odds to gain independence. Modern India, unfortunately, tends to sway our perspective and forget the former glories and wonders of such a rich culture.
corridor_writers
Aless wrote:
Indian history is a fascinating subject, not only in more ancient times, but also in the modern day. The area that was once the cradle of civilisation grew to be the most important colony in a massive empire, eventually fighting against all odds to gain independence. Modern India, unfortunately, tends to sway our perspective and forget the former glories and wonders of such a rich culture.


You say "modern India, unfortunately, tends to sway our perspective and forget the former glories and wonders of such a rich culture." Why do you say this? I have talked to many Indians who love to talk about their countries past. Or are you referring of this more from the political stand-point than the individual citizens?
rshanthakumar
India has had its own share of wars and invasions. And that makes the history fascinating possibly. But then we should remember, progress and civilisation is done really in between wars and wars are won because of this progress that the human kind has made in science and technology.

Unlike what is said earlier, education is wide spread in India today after having realised that education was the biggest bottleneck in the country's past. When you have money, you need to build your R&D and technology so that no one else could catch up with you fast enough. But this country was headed by people who wanted to suppress others and make their own living. Naturally, education was denied to nearly 90% of the people. 5% of the people got partial education and the 5% had the complete education. And this was the cause of the downfall of India.

Now let us see how all this unfolds.
amicalindia
By the estimates of various international economic bodies, India will surpass US in terms of wealth by year 2040. The number 1 slot will be contended by China and India.

But to say that India will strike back is wrong because most of these growth will be result of economic cooperation between India and US. (and not because of competition between them)

rshanthakumar wrote:
Many times, a civilisation is measured by the money it made and the wealth it created. More wealthy a civilisation was, then we consider that to be a successful civilisation. And a corollary of this is, more wealthy a civilisation is more powerful it will be!

Where was India in this map across the centuries? That would speak volumes of the Indian civilisation. India was one of the richest countries in the world cornering 40% of the global GDP for over 1400 years. The percentage GDP went down from 1400 to 1700 AD but India was still the richest nation in the world till about 1700. After this the English and the Europeans took over. 1914 you find the US becoming the richest beating the English and they continue to be.

Will India strike back is the question?
rshanthakumar
Economic cooperation is a misnomer. Like the cooperation India gave the English when they landed in India? I don't think the US will take things down that way. The English are the ones who created visas and passports to stop movement of people. They are the ones who created disparity in the minds of the people with reference to races. if we expect that the US will run for a fair competition leave alone cooperation, we should be insane.

What ever the US and the west do will have a reason behind it. Read Chomsky if you want more light on the topic.
corridor_writers
rshanthakumar wrote:
Economic cooperation is a misnomer. Like the cooperation India gave the English when they landed in India? I don't think the US will take things down that way. The English are the ones who created visas and passports to stop movement of people. They are the ones who created disparity in the minds of the people with reference to races. if we expect that the US will run for a fair competition leave alone cooperation, we should be insane.

What ever the US and the west do will have a reason behind it. Read Chomsky if you want more light on the topic.


I assume you mean Avram Noam Chomsky? He has written and said many things - and while I am not all that familiar with his works, I am not sure what he has said that backs up your statement. Is there any book in which he specifically states the intentions of the west in terms of it's role in eastern economics?
phpjsfan
roshanjk wrote:
I've been reading this book titled "Freedom at Midnight" by Lapierre and Collins. It is a chronological account of the events which led to the independence and inevitable partition of India. I would certainly recommend this book to anyone interested to know more about the modern history of India.

Freedom at Midnight does a brilliant job of not only portraying the historical events but also giving you interesting insights into the people - their personalities, aspirations, frustrations - who were involved in making that history.

Its one of the few books which, at several occassions, pushed me to the brink of crying.


Some comments:

    I don't know if the book could be treated as authentic historical material.

    The book is, of course, a great read because both Collins and Lapierre are wonderful writers. I heard that though they did their research together, they wrote independantly - Collins in English and Lapierre in French. I've read all their books, and they're all wonderfully written. But then I've also read other books treating the same subjects, and I've always found anomalies. But then, I'm one of those insensitive gnomes who believe history should not be sensationalized.

    For a 'de-sensationalized' treatment of the history of indian independance, i would recommend Nehru's 'Autobiography' and 'The Discovery of India'. Then again, you could also try Louis Fischer's biography of Gandhi.

    To go off on a tangent, the first book by Collins and Lapierre - 'Or I'll Dress You in Mourning' - is about the famous bullfighter called el Cordobes, and among all their books I liked this one best.
corridor_writers
phpjsfan wrote:
roshanjk wrote:
I've been reading this book titled "Freedom at Midnight" by Lapierre and Collins. It is a chronological account of the events which led to the independence and inevitable partition of India. I would certainly recommend this book to anyone interested to know more about the modern history of India.

Freedom at Midnight does a brilliant job of not only portraying the historical events but also giving you interesting insights into the people - their personalities, aspirations, frustrations - who were involved in making that history.

Its one of the few books which, at several occassions, pushed me to the brink of crying.


Some comments:

    I don't know if the book could be treated as authentic historical material.

    The book is, of course, a great read because both Collins and Lapierre are wonderful writers. I heard that though they did their research together, they wrote independantly - Collins in English and Lapierre in French. I've read all their books, and they're all wonderfully written. But then I've also read other books treating the same subjects, and I've always found anomalies. But then, I'm one of those insensitive gnomes who believe history should not be sensationalized.

    For a 'de-sensationalized' treatment of the history of indian independance, i would recommend Nehru's 'Autobiography' and 'The Discovery of India'. Then again, you could also try Louis Fischer's biography of Gandhi.

    To go off on a tangent, the first book by Collins and Lapierre - 'Or I'll Dress You in Mourning' - is about the famous bullfighter called el Cordobes, and among all their books I liked this one best.


Awesome, thanks! More books to add to my list of “must read someday”. It’s a shame this list is already so long I will never reach the end of it in my lifetime…..but that is the best part about a book…..there is always another one there when your done with the one in your hand. Smile
burqe
As an interesting fact, I was recently travelling northern pakistan and I found the place where it is famous that Ashok established his head quarters. There are still remains of some building there. Some strange message is written on a large stone and is believed to be the history of the time. Much efforts are done to understand it completly but little is done so far. If any one is interested in visiting the place, let me know.

There are other ancient remains of arian people as well. They are beleived to enter here much after. Ashoks time is beleived to be far before crist. The arian remains are famous as Moen jo daro and are in the southers part of the country and are quite near the port city of Karachi
frih
good post buddy
corridor_writers
burqe wrote:
As an interesting fact, I was recently travelling northern pakistan and I found the place where it is famous that Ashok established his head quarters. There are still remains of some building there. Some strange message is written on a large stone and is believed to be the history of the time. Much efforts are done to understand it completly but little is done so far. If any one is interested in visiting the place, let me know.

There are other ancient remains of arian people as well. They are beleived to enter here much after. Ashoks time is beleived to be far before crist. The arian remains are famous as Moen jo daro and are in the southers part of the country and are quite near the port city of Karachi


Fascinating! Is there a web site, article, or book where I could read or learn more about this? I think too many people tend to forget that this area of our planet was what many have referred to a the “cradle of life” for our planet; one of the places our civilization sprang up from.
rshanthakumar
corridor_writers wrote:
rshanthakumar wrote:
Economic cooperation is a misnomer. Like the cooperation India gave the English when they landed in India? I don't think the US will take things down that way. The English are the ones who created visas and passports to stop movement of people. They are the ones who created disparity in the minds of the people with reference to races. if we expect that the US will run for a fair competition leave alone cooperation, we should be insane.

What ever the US and the west do will have a reason behind it. Read Chomsky if you want more light on the topic.


I assume you mean Avram Noam Chomsky? He has written and said many things - and while I am not all that familiar with his works, I am not sure what he has said that backs up your statement. Is there any book in which he specifically states the intentions of the west in terms of it's role in eastern economics?


sorry, I did not answer your question earlier. Yes. It's Noam Chomsky I refer to.

almost every one of the books talk of the way, the west (read US) has tried to manuveour politics with an underlying economic motive. Pl read Hegemony or Survival and What Uncle Sam Really Wants. Throws a different perception on the happenings in the world, really. Thought provoking and more blatant accusation ever.
corridor_writers
rshanthakumar wrote:

....Pl read Hegemony or Survival and What Uncle Sam Really Wants. Throws a different perception on the happenings in the world, really. Thought provoking and more blatant accusation ever.


Can you summarize these in a short paragraph? I am buried with school reading at the moment, but would love to hear the opinions expressed in these books.
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