No, the average laser pointer cannot reach out of the Earth's atmosphere with any appreciable power.
The actual range depends greatly on ambient light and atmospheric conditions. It also varies between lasers. Most lasers you can find are 5mw or less; higher output power means more range. Also, different lasers have different beam spreads (the beam spreading out over distance) the tighter the beam, the more range.
The laser sight for my rifle is a 35mw green laser. I don't know exactly how far it can reach, but the dot is visible at 500 yards, even in daylight. (and in low light, the beam itself is clearly visible)
I agree with ocalhoun.
However, if you're talking about mild red lasers, the most common laser, it's probably more than 5 meters, but less than 30.
I echo everyone else's comments. Distance has many variables, but in referring to the dirt cheap 5mw red beams, they can hardly be seen a km away.
I've bought a few different power laser modules from China over the years for different projects. It still amazes me how far down in price they continue to go. You can get a 50 mw green for around $20 these days, and even 50mw violet beams for less than that!